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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

前述北京微信用户Robin Wang说,11年前他是一位忠实的QQ用户,但现在已经停用这款即时通讯服务,因为它显得不够专业。但自从在手机上下载微信之后,他发现多数同事和朋友都在上面,现在大家都通过语音邮件交流了。

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L2研究总监科林o吉尔伯特表示,这一系列合作标志着创新的摇篮与时尚的发源地终于开始牵手。吉尔伯特说,要解决可穿戴领域的难题,缺少的不仅仅是设计这一种要素,但设计确实是这个领域期待的元素。这份报告的调查显示,超过一半的受访者希望拥有看上去更像珠宝的可穿戴设备,62%的受访者更喜欢腕戴式设备。
狄更斯在《双城记》中描写法国大革命时,距离事件发生已有近一个世纪。而我则是在今年12月就回顾盘点这一年。因此,我在此描述的某些趋势,可能将在可预见的未来继续存在,而另一些趋势则可能已经开始减弱。作为当今时代“最哗众取宠的权威人士”之一,我只要求各位在阅读这篇评论文章时记住一点:过去的业绩并不能保证将来的表现。
Yelling at the screen to tell the female protagonist not to go downstairs alone at night will no longer be futile. In this interactive horror game, you control all the action. The story, which was crafted by filmmakers Larry Fessenden and Graham Reznick alongside game developers Supermassive Games, traps eight friends in a remote mountain getaway with a psycho on the loose. The game stars a Hollywood cast that includes Brett Dalton (Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D), Hayden Panettiere (Nashville) and Rami Malek (Need for Speed). Players will take control of each of the characters as they explore the creepy world and try to survive until dawn. No one is safe from death. And every choice made in the game will result in a different experience. The script was over a thousand pages long, opening up hundreds of different endings for players to explore. The Butterfly Effect technology ensures that no two games will be played the same. The one constant is that the game is scary. Don’t play this one alone or in the dark.

n. 史诗,叙事诗 adj. 史诗的,叙事诗的,宏大的,
"Moreover, most Chinese families only have one child, so many of us return to China because we want to stay close to our family and friends," said a student surnamed Su, who gave up his job in the UK and returned to take care of his mother in China.
China has made huge progress in easing its residence and entry policies for foreigners since September 2015, which has helped attract more talent from overseas, as well as boost international exchanges and the economy, according to a ministry statement.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

成都9月推出约3.1万套商品住房上市销售

n. 石油
9.Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them
10.American Hustle

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Rank: 2
中国民航大学经济管理学院教授李晓津表示,数量迅速增加的航班以及民用航空有限的空域是延误的主要原因。
狄更斯在《双城记》中描写法国大革命时,距离事件发生已有近一个世纪。而我则是在今年12月就回顾盘点这一年。因此,我在此描述的某些趋势,可能将在可预见的未来继续存在,而另一些趋势则可能已经开始减弱。作为当今时代“最哗众取宠的权威人士”之一,我只要求各位在阅读这篇评论文章时记住一点:过去的业绩并不能保证将来的表现。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 5.同性婚姻
  • 人民日报:有的省去库存堆出泡沫 违背去杠杆目标
  • Simply bend one end of the product around yourself or the back of your seat and bend the other end into a secure position for your head. You can even use the hand to hold your device for movie time.
  • 二线城市库存急跌 楼市趋热房价上涨承压
  • 中国产灯具再陷“召回门” 涉及数量达160多万套
  • 10.《萤火虫》灵感来自葛底斯堡战役
    5. Geopolitical flashpoints.In the not too distant past, a small supply disruption would send oil prices skyward. In early 2014, for example, violence in Libya blocked oil exports, contributing to a rise in oil prices. In Iraq, ISIS overran parts of the country and oil prices shot up on fears of supply outages. But since then, geopolitical flashpoints have had much less of an effect on the price of crude. During the last few weeks of 2014, violence flared up again in Libya. But after a brief increase in prices, the markets shrugged off the event. Nevertheless, history has demonstrated time and again that geopolitical crises are some of the most powerful short-term movers of oil prices.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 统计局:1月新建商品住宅均价环比上涨0.61%;前月为0.77%, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

超六成房企年度目标难完成 年终放量不改大势

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

切实杜绝开发商“囤地”乱象

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • An EMBA also boosts corporate careers. “The skills I acquired were key to my promotion,” said one graduate. A fifth are now chief executives, managing directors or board members three years after graduation. Average salaries were up 52 per cent from $114,000 before the programme to $175,000 five years later.
    据防止虐待动物协会录制的视频显示,那间房间里满是垃圾杂物胡乱不堪,还有动物粪便。
  • Companies do have black lists. It's not written down anywhere but it's a list of people they'd be happy to get rid of if the opportunity arises. If you feel invisible, if you're getting bad assignments, if your boss is ignoring you, or if they move your office, you're probably on it.
    勒布朗·詹姆斯
    英国剑桥大学(University of Cambridge)佳奇商学院(Judge Business School)的排名上升5个位次,至第5位。这不仅是该学院首次跻身前5名,而且还是伦敦商学院在这个榜单上首次失去英国最佳商学院这个头衔。
    Please accept our wishes for you and yours for a happy New Year.
    Care about them, but don't let on mkay?

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 经济增长中高速一线城市房价或将上涨
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 房产中介乱象调查:黑中介为“洗白”频繁改名

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

?根据市长迈克尔?布隆伯格,报道的33个事故有10个发生在纽约,数字还有望上升。纽约的死亡是由于倒下的树木、电击和溺水。
ScreamRide
Apple CEO Steve Jobs poses with the new iPhone 4 during the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference in San Francisco, California in this June 7, 2010
Experts waited until dark had fallen before detonating demolition charges which brought down 150000 square metres of concrete glass and steel in 10 seconds.
第十步 如果以上几条都做不到——就公告天下说你有反社会人格
[skr?ul]
? Aid workers are worried about a food crisis in Haiti, where Hurricane Sandy killed 52 people last week. The UN is also concerned that flooding could lead to a sharp rise in cholera cases. At least 69 people were killed by Sandy in the Caribbean.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 《法律与秩序:特殊受害者》(Law & Order: SVU):NBC频道的这部电视剧上一季中的危机仿佛是从肥皂剧中搬来,发生了各种大事,奥利维亚(Olivia,玛莉丝卡·哈吉塔[(Mariska Hargitay]饰)经历了许多危险——喜欢跟踪的变态强奸犯,折磨人的婚外恋,新生婴儿,现在这一切终于平息下来。在今年的第16季中,侦探们回到了重要的性犯罪上,其中一集的灵感来自雷·赖斯(Ray Rice),讲述的是从监控录像中看到一个著名体育广播员殴打自己的妻子。
  • 新华社:住建部约谈12城 已有6城作出回应!
  • 当瑞秋布鲁姆听闻自己赢得喜剧类电视最佳女主角奖项时,喜极而泣。亚马逊节目《丛林中的莫扎特》也意外斩获最佳剧集奖项。
    今年1至10月份的民间固定资产投资同比增长2.9%,比1至9月份的增速快了0.4个百分点。
  • 旧楼装电梯 应引入补偿金制度
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 中国国家旅游局周五发出通知,确认了最近几个月中国游客因所持旅游文件不完整而被拒进入韩国济州岛的报道。该机构提醒中国公民“慎重选择旅游目的地”。
    As for liberalization of global trade, we believe all countries need to work together to push it forward. This globe belongs to us all and we all need to do our bit.
  • The remains of the monarch -- depicted by William Shakespeare as a monstrous hunchback and often viewed as one of English history's greatest villains -- will now be solemnly reburied in the local cathedral.
    今年剩余时间将是大西洋两岸首次公开发行(IPO)的繁忙季节,意大利倍耐力(Pirelli)(见题图)、阿里巴巴(Alibaba)支持的百世物流(Best Logistics)和视频流媒体平台Roku等公司都将上市。
  • Michael Smurfit Graduate Business School at University College Dublin showed the best overall progress, moving up 21 places to 48. Guanghua School of Management at Peking University returns to the ranking at 38, after missing last year due to a low response rate from participants.
    This ranking measures the quality and breadth of the schools’ postgraduate programmes. It is based on their performance in the four main rankings published by the FT each year: MBA, Executive MBA, Masters in Management and Executive Education. Only schools that take part in all four rankings are eligible for a full score.
  • lace
    我曾见过的超级优秀的老板们,都对他们的工作极具热情,他们同工作共生活共呼吸,尽最大努力将工作做到最好。与此同时,他们还有工作之外的生活。他们懂得家庭和工作或者玩和工作之间的平衡度。他们为员工们如何做到生活和工作之间平衡做了一个很好的表率。
    Recipient: Lindsay Lohan
  • affect+ion→感动→感情;友情
    “Someone left for lunch and never came back.”
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 置业指南:同一个小区怎么选楼栋 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

李克强:政府服务必须围着市场主体和人民群众转

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

深圳:7月1日起推多项大气污染治理措施 禁止售用油漆

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

全国已有13万个村组完成农村集体产权制度改革

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

行业压力大 浴室柜企业四大生存法

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 卢彦说,通州和其他地区也会建设高规格的医院供市中心地区居民看病,该举措可以缓解交通压力和城市拥堵。
  • 专家还指出,最近几年的人口控制政策的效果已经开始显现出来。
  • 降准是楼市“兴奋剂”成交量价望步入新一轮

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Graham Allison, the famous Harvard professor, also warned that east Asia was headed towards the “Thucydides Trap”, adding: “When a rapidly rising power rivals an established ruling power, trouble ensues.” In early 2013, the then prime minister of Luxembourg, Jean-Claude Juncker, warned that 2013 was looking dangerously like 1913. The Economist also warned at the end of 2013, “A century on, there are uncomfortable parallels with the era that led to the outbreak of the first world war.”
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 在叙利亚问题上,普京说,俄罗斯将继续开展军事行动,直至政治进程启动。他说,必须让叙利亚人民自己决定由谁来治理这个国家。他还说,他不知道俄罗斯是否需要在叙利亚设立永久军事基地。
    n. 宣言,声明 vi. 发表宣言
    We will continue to encourage people to start businesses and make innovations.
  • We learned that you can never turn a wolf into a pet dog.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • While you're studying, pay attention to the material you know will be on a test and write a quick practice question. Start a new document on your laptop and add questions as you think of them.
  • 13城市试点利用集体用地建设租赁住房
  • 艾丽斯·斯瓦策尔多年来一直为争取女性权利而斗争。她对像唐纳德·特朗普这样“老式的性别歧视者”能够当上美国总统深感震惊。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 北京信通大厦100%股权于北交所挂牌转让
  • Household substance abuse
  • 建筑材料行业市场分析:水泥价格环比上涨 玻璃价格环比下跌
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

广州住建委:330新政前出让土地的公寓可卖个人

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 北京鼓励发展租赁型职工宿舍 让打工者在大城市有一张舒适的床
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 总结:十大数字带你回顾2016年建材行业
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Hartz started Eventbrite, an online ticketing platform, with her now-husband Kevin in 2006. Since its founding, the company has raised $140 million from firms like Sequoia Capital and Tiger Global Management and reached $2 billion in gross ticket sales this September. Entrepreneurship forced Hartz to appreciate candid and collaborative conversations. "I had to learn how to ask for help," she says. "Everyone always thinks it's brave to go out alone, but I think it's even braver to put yourself out there in front of others, and to figure out how to work together."

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

经济增长率将会首次达到3%在这十年里
Amy Poehler made out with Bono, Tina Fey mocked George Clooney's taste in women and Matt Damon emerged, bizarrely, as the night's recurring gag.
Asia and Australia account for 11 of the world's top 20 most expensive cities, with eight from Europe and one from South America, the Economist Intelligence Unit's (EIU) worldwide cost of living index found. No North American cities featured in the top 20.
Rihanna, who came in at second place, earned her runner-up position "following another 12-month period in which she was absolutely bloody everywhere and yet we all entirely failed to get sick of her," per FHM.
我更愿意和别人保持距离
“研究数据时,我不断回到这个问题上来,它其实是个身份政治问题,”挪威卑尔根大学(University of Bergen)研究欧洲极右翼党派的教授伊丽莎白?伊法斯夫拉腾(Elisabeth Ivarsflaten)说。“这是民粹主义者获得支持的最有力的征兆。”
赢家:湖人
The special tokens of appreciation will take place alongside more traditional and somber observances, including the laying of a wreath by President Barack Obama at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery, just across the Potomac River from the nation's capital.
据行业估计,到2020年,我国年度票房有望达到1000亿元人民币。
Some people remain attached to a theory that can be described as resource scarcity. At its heart this theory suggests that resource development follows a linear pattern in which low-cost resources are developed first, meaning that most if not all future development must be more costly. Unfortunately the history of the industry does not support this view. If anything the experience of the past few decades suggests that the opposite is true.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

人口老龄化阶段 老年家居市场的空白亟需填补

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • “Lotte will hurt the Chinese people and the consequences could be severe,” said the report, which followed a string of government probes into the company’s business interests in China.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • The Death Proof star's early success was on the independent film circuit. But then she met Harvey Weinstein in a hotel room and it is there that she alleges he raped her.
  • 多家房企借助可转债融资 多用于项目开发
  • A total of 16 Chinese companies are in the top 100 on the list, including China Mobile, Alibaba and Tencent.
  • “双11”后遗症发作 物流、质量问题等遭投诉
  • adj. 精美的,微妙的,美

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 北京市家具以旧换新重启临近
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 该片根据同名童话故事拍摄而成,主要讲述了主人公毛各利的丛林奇遇,他试图在探险中发现自己。他在丛林中遇到很多生物(由众多演员扮演),正是这些生物使他的旅程变得异常艰辛。
  • Will Emmanuel Macron secure a commitment from German chancellor Angela Merkel on a eurozone budget

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

年底提前还房贷未必划算 过早还贷可能收违约金

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